Featured Acquisitions - Special Edition Rusk Center Lecture on War Crimes Tribunals

The Alexander Campbell King Law Library presents this special edition of a selective featured acquisitions list in support of the March 6, 2012 lecture by David Scheffer on The End of Impunity: War Crimes Tribunals in the 21st Century.


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All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals by David Scheffer
Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c2012
KF373.S338 A3 2012 Sohn Library

Within days of Madeleine Albright's confirmation as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations in 1993, she instructed David Scheffer to spearhead the historic mission to create a war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. As senior adviser to Albright and then as President Clinton's ambassador-at-large for war crimes issues, Scheffer was at the forefront of the efforts that led to criminal tribunals for the Balkans, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia, and that resulted in the creation of the permanent International Criminal Court. All the Missing Soulsis Scheffer's gripping insider's account of the international gamble to prosecute those responsible for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, and to redress some of the bloodiest human rights atrocities in our time.

Scheffer reveals the truth behind Washington's failures during the 1994 Rwandan genocide and the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, the anemic hunt for notorious war criminals, how American exceptionalism undercut his diplomacy, and the perilous quests for accountability in Kosovo and Cambodia. He takes readers from the killing fields of Sierra Leone to the political back rooms of the U.N. Security Council, providing candid portraits of major figures such as Madeleine Albright, Anthony Lake, Richard Goldstone, Louise Arbour, Samuel "Sandy" Berger, Richard Holbrooke, and Wesley Clark, among others.

A stirring personal account of an important historical chapter,All the Missing Soulsprovides new insights into the continuing struggle for international justice

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Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in Interantional Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy by Steven R. Ratner
Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001
K5301 .R38 2001 Balcony

The fall of dictatorial regimes and the eruption of destructive civil conflicts around the world have led to calls for holding individuals accountable for human rights atrocities. International law had little to say on this subject from the time of the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials fifty yearsago until very recently. In this well-researched book, Steven Ratner and Jason Abrams offer a comprehensive study of the promise and limitations of international criminal law as a means of enforcing international human rights and humanitarian law. They provide a searching analysis of the principalcrimes under the law of nations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity. They go on to appraise the most important prosecutorial and other mechanisms developed to bring individuals to justice. After applying their conclusions in a detailed case study, the authors offer a series of compellingconclusions on the prospects for accountability. In this new edition the authors also cover recent developments such as the jurisprudence of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwanda tribunals, new domestic attempts at accountability, and the International Criminal Court. This new edition has been revised and updated to include developments since 1997, including domestic prosecutions and truth commission, the work of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwand Tribunals, and the International Criminal Court.

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Amnesty for Crime in International Law and Practice by Andreas O'Shea
The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2002
K5132 .O75 2002 Balcony

This book contains a comprehensive and well-researched study of the relationship between municipal amnesty laws and developing principles of international criminal law. It pursues a path towards defining criteria for reconciling these two delicate fields of transitional justice. It concludes with a concrete proposal for the international community of states.


It includes tables of treaties, amnesty laws and related cases.

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The Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic and Scientific Perspectives edited by Jay E. Austin and Carl E. Bruch
Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000
KZ6385 .E58 2000 Sohn Library

The environmental devastation caused by military conflict has been witnessed in the wake of the Vietnam War, the Gulf War and the Kosovo conflict. This book brings together leading international lawyers, military officers, scientists and economists to examine the legal, political, economic and scientific implications of wartime damage to the natural environment and public health. The book considers issues raised by the application of humanitarian norms and legal rules designed to protect the environment, and the destructive nature of war. Contributors offer an analysis and critique of the existing law of war framework, lessons from peacetime environmental law, means of scientific assessment and economic valuation of ecological and public health damage, and proposals for future legal and institutional developments. This book provides a contemporary forum for interdisciplinary analysis of armed conflict and the environment, and explores ways to prevent and redress wartime environmental damage.

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For Humanity: Reflections of a War Crimes Investigator by Richard J. Goldstone
New Haven: Yale University Press, c2000
KTL4545 .G65 2000 Sohn Library

A justice of the Constitutional Court of South Africa since 1994, Goldstone provides an intimate account of his progression from a young activist opposing South Africa's racial policies to the world's first independent war crimes prosecutor for the United Nations Tribunals. Illustrations.

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From Human Rights to International Criminal Law: Studies in Honour of an African Jurist, the Late Judge Laïty Kama edited by Emmanuel Decaux, Adama Dieng, and Malick Sow
Leiden; Boston: M. Nijhoff, c2007
KZ7145 .F75 2007 Basement

Judge Laïty Kama, the first president of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, died 5 years ago. He was a Senegalese Judge, and a Human Rights expert within the United Nations. This collection of essays on international criminal law and human rights is published to honour him. They are signed by his colleagues of the Arbitrary Detention Working Group or new members, Judges from the ad hoc Tribunals and the International Criminal Court, Lawyers and Jurists from different places. Deep analysis of various human rights issues and the jurisprudence of the international criminal court and tribunals are provided here, to reflect areas of interest to the late Judge Kama.

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Genocide, War Crimes, and the West: History and Complicity edited by Adam Jones
London; New York: Zed Books; New York: Palgrave, 2004
HV6322.7 .G458 2004 Sohn Library

Genocide and war crimes are increasingly the focus of scholarly and activist attention. Much controversy exists over how, precisely, these grim phenomena should be defined and conceptualized. Genocide, War Crimes & the West tackles this controversy, and clarifies our understanding of an important but under-researched dimension: the involvement of the US and other liberal democracies in actions that are conventionally depicted as the exclusive province of totalitarian and authoritarian regimes. Many of the authors are eminent scholars and/or renowned activists; in most cases, their contributions are specifically written for this volume. In the opening and closing sections of the book, analytical issues are considered, including questions of responsibility for genocide and war crimes, and institutional responses at both the domestic and international levels. The central section is devoted to an unprecedentedly broad range of original case studies of western involvement, or alleged involvement, in war crimes and genocide. At a moment in history when terrorism has become a near universal focus of public attention, this volume makes clear why the West - as a result of both its historical legacy and contemporary actions - so often excites widespread resentment and opposition throughout the rest of the world.

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Implementing International Humanitarian Law: from the ad hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court by Yusuf Aksar
London; New York: Routledge, 2004
KZ6471 .A39 2004 Sohn Library

Throughout the twentieth century, the international community has witnessed many human rights violations that have also constituted violations of international humanitarian law. Two of the worst violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law occurred in the territories of the former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda in the last decade of the twentieth century. The large scale of killings, rape and other forms of sexual violence, 'ethnic cleansing', genocide and other types of crimes committed in these two regions of the world impelled the international community to bring those responsible for such crimes to justice. Thus, the UN Security Council established the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter in 1993 and in 1994 respectively. The establishment of the ICTY and the ICTR was innovative in character since it was established by the Security Council on behalf of theentire international community. This development also paved the way for the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 1998. Implementing International Humanitarian Lawexamines the international humanitarian law rules and their application by the ad hoc tribunals with regard to the substantive laws of the ICTY and the ICTR. The practice of the ICTY and the ICTR and their contribution to international humanitarian law, together with their possible impact on the ICC, is examined in light of the decisions rendered by the ad hoc tribunals and of the latest international humanitarian law instruments such as the 1996 ILC Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind and the ICC Statute.

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International and Transnational Criminal Law by David Luban
New York: Aspen Publishers; Austin [Tex.]: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, c2010
K5015.4 .L83 2010 Balcony

Contents: The idea of international criminal law -- International law preliminaries -- International criminal tribunals : from Nuremberg to the Hague and beyond -- Comparative criminal procedure and sentencing -- Jurisdiction -- Immunities -- U.S. constitutional rights in a transnational context -- Obtaining evidence abroad -- International extradition and its alternatives -- The effect of treaty rights, as construed by international tribunals, on domestic criminal enforcement : the death penalty -- Organized crime -- Trafficking in people, drugs, and arms -- Money laundering -- Corruption -- Terrorism -- The International Criminal Court -- Modes of participation and mens rea -- Defenses to international criminal prosecutions -- Crimes against humanity -- Genocide -- War crimes -- Torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment -- Sexual violence -- Alternatives to prosecution after atrocity : a survey of other transitional justice mechanisms

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International Crimes and the ad hoc Tribunals by Guénaël Mettraux
Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press 2005
K5301 .M48 2005 Sohn Library

This volume offers the first comprehensive study of the law of international crimes as applied by the ad hoc Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. It contains a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the law of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide, as identified by these two tribunals.

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International Criminal Justice edited by Michael Bohlander
London: Cameron May 2007
KZ6310 I582 2007 Basement

Contents: Equality of arms : guiding light or empty shell? / Stefania Negri -- Gathering evidence in international criminal trials : the view of the defence lawyer / Michael G. Karnavas -- The completion strategy of the ICTY and the ICTR / Sarah Williams -- The institutional law of international tribunals : salient comparative and hierarchical aspects / Kaiyan Homi Kaikobad -- The international criminal judiciary : problems of judicial selection, independence and ethics / Michael Bohlander -- The role of a defence office : some lessons from recent and not so recent war crimes precedents / G. Mettraux and A. Cengic -- The structure of international criminal procedure : 'adversarial', 'inquisitorial' or 'mixed'? / Kai Ambos


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International Criminal Justice in bello?: The ICC and Politics in Darfur and Northern Uganda by Philipp Kastner
Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012
KZ7312 .K37 2012 Basement

The International Criminal Court (ICC) plays a particularly delicate role in situations of ongoing armed conflicts, both from a legal and a political perspective. While the primary objective of the ICC Statute is to end impunity, States Parties and the UN Security Council were mainly driven by political considerations when they triggered ICC jurisdiction over the situations in northern Uganda and Darfur. In this book, the author discusses strategies within the legal framework governing the Court to counter such politicization. He concludes that although the ICC can have beneficial effects on ongoing armed conflicts, its primary raison d#146;être should not be to influence politics but to continue to fight impunity in the long run.

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International Criminal Law by Ilias Bantekas and Susan Nash
London; New York: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007
K5165 .B35 2007 Balcony

Providing an introduction to and detailed examination of substantive, enforcement and procedural aspects of international criminal law, this book's examination of international and transnational crimes under treaty and customary law has been fully updated and revised. Exploring the enforcement of international criminal law through an investigation of the practice of the Security Council-based tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the International Criminal Court and other hybrid tribunals, such as those for Cambodia, Sierra Leone, Lockerbie and truth commissions, the authors look at terrorism, offences against the person and piracy and jurisdiction and immunities amongst a variety of other topics. New to this edition are four additional chapters on: various forms of liability and participation in international crime war crimes crimes against humanity genocide and illegal rendition. This is an ideal text forundergraduate and postgraduate students of law or international relations, practitioners and those interested in gaining an insight into international criminal law

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International Criminal Law by Antonio Cassese
Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008
K5000 .C37 2008 Balcony

International Criminal Law provides a clear account of the principles governing international crimes and an outline of international criminal trials. Adopting a combination of the classic common law and more theoretical approaches to the subject, it expounds the fundamentals of bothsubstantive and procedural international criminal law, providing a theoretical framework to all the rules, principles, concepts, and legal constructs key to the subject. Cassese guides the reader through a vast array of cases and materials from a number of jurisdictions, providing thought-provokinganalysis that brings the political and human contexts to the fore.All the international courts and tribunals, as well as mixed courts or such national courts as the Iraqi Special Tribunal, are fully covered, both as regards their structure, functioning and proceedings and as far as their case law is concerned.As one of the leading experts in the field, Cassese draws on his academic expertise and practical experience - as the former president of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia - to provide a uniquely personal perspective that brings the subject to life. Online Resource CentreA wealth of bibliographical references as well as major legal documents relevant to the subject are made available on the book's accompanying website.

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International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation by Victor Peskin
Cambridge [UK]; New York: Cambridge University Press, c2008
K5001 .P475 2008 Sohn Library

This book tells the compelling story of how the UN International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda prod states implicated in atrocities to hand over their own leaders for trial. Without state cooperation, the United Nations would fail in its mission to help bring perpetrators of war crimes to justice and to rebuild and reconcile war-torn societies. The tribunals' relative success in overcoming state resistance to international trials is the outcome of a political process that Victor Peskin uncovers and explains. This is the first in-depth, comparative study of state cooperation in the tribunals.

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An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure by Robert Cryer
Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press 2010
K5301 .I587 2010 Balcony

This market-leading textbook gives an authoritative account of international criminal law, and focuses on what the student needs to know - the crimes that are dealt with by international courts and tribunals as well as the procedures that police the investigation and prosecution of those crimes. The reader is guided through controversies with an accessible, yet sophisticated approach by the author team of four international lawyers, with experience both of teaching the subject, and as negotiators at the foundation of the International Criminal Court and the Rome conference. It is an invaluable introduction for all students of international criminal law and international relations, and now covers developments in the ICC, victims' rights, and alternatives to international criminal justice, as well as including extended coverage of terrorism. Short, well chosen excerpts allow students to familiarise themselves with primary material from a wide range of sources. An extensive package of online resources is also available.

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Judging Criminal Leaders: the Slow Erosion of Impunity by Yves Beigbeder
The Hague: New York: Kluwer Law International, 2002
K5064 .B45 2002 Balcony

In spite of the Geneva and The Hague Conventions of the late 19th century, the Twentieth Century has been a century of massacres and genocides: the massacres due to European colonialism, two World Wars, the Holocaust, the Armenian and the Rwanda genocides, the casualties caused by the Communist utopia in the USSR, China and Cambodia, and numerous civil wars.Most of the leaders mainly responsible for these massacres and genocides have enjoyed impunity. However, there is a slow popular awakening to the fact that leaders should be accountable for their crimes. A human rights regime was created after World War II, international criminal law has taken root with the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, and, in the 1990s with the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. In 1998, the Statute for an International Criminal Court was adopted, while the arrest of former dictator Pinochet in London has created both a political storm and a judiciary advance. The Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction" have been publicized in an effort to strengthen the application of international law in national legal systems. In Cambodia and Sierra Leone, mixed national/international courts are being set up to try criminal leaders.This unique volume offers the reader an overview of the various models which are emerging to ensure that criminal leaders and their collaborators are made accountable for their schemes and actions, and clearly illustrates how national, international and mixed national/international tribunals are slowly eroding the impunity of criminal leaders."

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Judging War Crimes and Torture: French Justice and International Criminal Tribunals and Commissions (1940-2005) by Yves Beigbeder
Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006
K5301 .B45 2006

Even democracies commit war crimes. France, like other democracies, has not always kept up to the high standards expected from the homeland of human rights . Its colonial past shows that what it termed its civilizing mission was tainted with military, economic and religious abuses, denounced by a few courageous groups and individuals, and revealed in a few public trials. The Vichy government s willing participation in Jewish persecution during the German occupation of France was ignored or denied until trials (Barbie, Touvier, Papon) brought to light these unpleasant facts in the 1990s. France s participation in the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals was relatively minor but useful. However, its participation in later international tribunals (Ex-Yugoslavia, Rwanda) revealed a few conflicts between French politics and the work of these tribunals. France s participation in the International Criminal Court is also reviewed.These developments show that even democratic countries, like France but not France alone, can commit war crimes, crimes against humanity and even be accomplices in genocides. Reasons include pressures in exceptional periods of internal and/or external political/military tensions, nationalist policies, lack of judiciary independence, and lack of media exposure to abuses. However, past crimes must be recalled and exposed, particularly if they have been hidden, covered by amnesties, and not judicially punished. They must be visible as part of a country s history in order to ensure that they are not repeated.

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The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? edited by David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L.H. McCormack
Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008
KZ1176.5 .L44 2008

In this new collection of essays the editors assess the legacy of the Nuremberg Trial asking whether the Trial really did have a civilising influence or if it constituted little more than institutionalised vengeance. Three essays focus particularly on the historical context and involve rich analysis of, for example, the atmospherics of the Trial itself and the attitudes of German society at the time to the conduct of the Trial.The majority of the essays deal with the contemporary legacies of the Nuremberg Trial and attempt to assess the ongoing relevance of the Judgment itself and of the principles encapsulated in it. Some essays consider the importance of the principle of individual criminal responsibility under international law and argue that the international community has to some extent failed to fulfil the promise of Nuremberg in the decades since the Trial. Other essays focus on contemporary application of aspects of the substantive law of Nuremberg - particularly the international crime of aggression, the law of military occupation and the use of the crime of conspiracy as an alternative basis of criminal responsibility. The collection also includes essays analysing the nature and operation of a number of international criminal tribunals since Nuremberg including the permanent International Criminal Court. The final grouping of essays focus on the impact of the Nuremberg Trial on Australia examining, in particular, Australia s post-World War Two war crimes trials of Japanese defendants, Australia s extensive national case law on Article 1(F) of the Refugee Convention and Australia s national implementing legislation for the Rome Statute.

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The Legal Regime of the International Criminal Court: Essays in honour of Professor Igor Blishchenko: in Memoriam Professor Igor Pavlovich Blishchenko (1930-2000)

edited by José Doria, Hans-Peter Gasser, and M. Cherif Bassiouni
Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009
KZ6311 .L44 2009 Sohn Library

This impressive and unique collection of essays covers important aspects of the legal regime of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The volume begins with an analysis of the historical development of the ICC, the progressive development of international humanitarian and international criminal law by the ad hoc Tribunals and the work of mixed national/international jurisdictions. The legal and institutional basis of the ICC is then dealt with in detail, including the organs of the ICC, war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes of aggression, modes of liability before the ICC and defences before the ICC. Part III focuses on the court at work, including its procedural rules, criminal proceedings at the ICC, penalties and appeal and revision procedures. Part IV deals with the relationship of the ICC with states and international organizations. The contributors are established scholars in the field of international criminal and humanitarian law, many of whom are practitioners in the various tribunals.

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Perspectives on the Nuremberg Trial edited by Guénaël Mettraux
Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008
KZ1176.5 .P47 2008 Basement


The trial of major Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg was a landmark event in the development of modern international law, and continues to be highly influential in our understanding of international criminal law and post-conflict justice. This volume offers a unique collection of the most important essays written on the Trial, discussing the key legal, political and philosophical questions raised by the Trial both at the time and in historical perspective. The collection focuses on pieces from those involved in the Tribunal, discussing the establishment of the Tribunal, the Trial itself, and the debate that followed the Judgment. Also included are representative essays of the academic debate that has surrounded Nuremberg in the sixty years since the Trial. Ranging from the contribution of Nuremberg to the substantive development of international criminal law to the philosophical evaluation of legalism in post-conflict international relations, the perspectives provided by the essays offer a unique overview of the persistent significance of Nuremberg across a range of academic disciplines. The collection also features newly translated essays from key German, Russian and French writers, available in English for the first time; a new essay by Gu na l Mettraux examining the Nuremberg legacy in contemporary international criminal justice, and an exhaustive bibliography of the literature on Nuremberg.

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The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda by John R.W.D. Jones
Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, c2000
KZ1203.A12 J66 1999 Basement

Paris-based attorney Jones served a seven-month stint as legal officer to the Rwanda Tribunals since the first edition was published in 1998. He includes much more detail here about the workings of the two ad-hoc tribunals established respectively in 1993 and 1994, and suggests how a permanent tribunal might behave. He includes a brief summary of final judgements delivered by the Chambers, the status of cases pending before the Trial and Appeals Chambers, and a subject index. He treats the Statutes and Rules of Procedure and evidence of each tribunal in separate parts, with commentary on each article and rule, and includes cross-references to the Statute of the International Criminal Court, signed in Rome in July 1998, subsequent to the first edition.

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The UN International Criminal Tribunals: the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone by William A. Schabas
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006
KZ6310 .S34 2006 Sohn Library

A guide to the law that applies in the international criminal tribunals for the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone.



War Crimes against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals by Kelly Dawn Askin
The Hague : M. Nijhoff Publishers ; Cambridge, Mass. : Distributed in the USA and Canada by Kluwer Law International, c1997
K5301 .A85 1997 Sohn Library

This book examines laws and customs of war prohibiting rape crimes dating back thousands of years, even though gender-specific crimes, particularly sex crimes, have been prevalent in wartime for centuries. It surveys the historical treatment of women in wartime, and argues that all the various forms of gender-specific crimes must be prosecuted and punished. It reviews the Nuremberg and Tokyo War Crimes Tribunals from a gendered perspective, and discusses how crimes against women could have been prosecuted in these tribunals and suggests explanations as to why they were neglected. It addresses the status of women in domestic and international law during the past one hundred years, including the years preceding World War II and in the aftermath of this war, and in the years immediately preceding the Yugoslav conflict. The evolution of the status and participation of women in international human rights and international humanitarian law is analyzed, including the impact domestic law and practice has had on international law and practice. Finally, this book reviews gender-specific crimes in the Yugoslav conflict, and presents arguments as to how various gender-specific crimes (including rape, forced prostitution, forced impregnation, forced maternity, forced sterilization, genocidal rape, and sexual mutilation) can be, and why they must be, prosecuted under Articles 2-5 of the Yugoslav Statute (i.e., as grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, torture, violations of the laws of war, violations of the customs of war, genocide, and crimes against humanity). The author, a human rights attorney, academic, and activist, spent three years researching both the treatment of women during periods of armed conflict and humanitarian laws protecting women from war crimes.

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War Crimes Tribunals and Transitional Justice: the Tokyo Trial and the Nuremburg Legacy by Madoka Futamura
London; New York: Routledge, 2008
KZ1174.5 .F88 2008 Sohn Library

Advocates of the "Nuremberg legacy" emphasize the positive impact of the individualization of responsibility and the establishment of an historical record through judicial procedures for a'war crimesa?'. This legacy has been cited in the context of the establishment and operation of the UN ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals in the 1990s, as well as for the International Criminal Court. The problem with this legacy, however, is that it is based solely on the experience of West Germany. Furthermore, the effect of the procedure on post-conflict society has not been empirically examined. This book does this by analyzing the Tokyo Trial, the other International Military Tribunal established after the Second World War, and its impact on post-war Japan. Madoka Futamura examines the short- and long-term impact of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (the Tokyo Trial), on post-war Japan, in order to improve the understanding of and strategy for ongoing international warcrimes tribunals. War Crimes Tribunals and Transitional Justice will be of much interest to students of war crimes, international law, transitional justice and international relations in general.


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War Law: Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict by Michael Byers
New York: Grove Press, 2005
KZ6385 .B94 2005


Security Council authorization -- Expanding reach of the Security Council -- Implied authorization and international ambiguity -- 'Inherent right' of self-defence -- Self-defence against terrorism -- Pre-emptive self-defence -- Pro-democratic intervention -- Unilateral humanitarian intervention -- Responsibility to protect -- Protection of civilians -- Protection of combatants and prisoners of war -- War crimes courts and tribunals